Part of the criticism of the protocol is based on the idea of climate justice (Liverman, 2008, p. 14).  The Paris Agreement is the culmination of a quarter century of international climate diplomacy launched by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Here is a brief summary of the evolution of global climate efforts and the role the United States plays. The first meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from 28 November to 9 December 2005, in conjunction with the 11th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11). See United Nations Climate Change Conference. 2009 – June – As part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, governments met in Bonn, Germany, to begin talks in Copenhagen on draft negotiations that would form the basis of an agreement. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the UNFCCC`s goal of reducing the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic disturbances of the climate system” (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).  December – COP 15 took place in Copenhagen, Denmark. After the end of the Commitment Period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, it was unable to reach agreement on binding commitments. In the final hours of the summit, the leaders of the United States, Brazil, China, Indonesia, India and South Africa agreed on what should be called the Copenhagen Accord, which recognized the need to limit the rise in global temperature to 2°C based on the science of climate change.
Although the agreement did not require legally binding commitments, countries were asked to promise voluntary GHG reduction targets. $100 billion in climate aid to developing countries has been pledged. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia declared that they would no longer adopt Kyoto targets.  On December 12, 2011, with effect from December 15, 2012, the Canadian government announced its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol at any time three years after its ratification.  Canada had committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% higher than in 1990. The Harper administration prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and deprioritized the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent stressed Canada`s responsibility for “huge financial penalties” under the treaty if it does not withdraw.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward.  The Harper government has stated that it will find a “made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other countries that ratified it.  During successive conferences of the parties – the COP – new elements have been added to the international structure of climate change negotiations. These elements address specific challenges such as mitigation financing, climate change adaptation and technology transfer.
But others believe that the most sensible climate action will take place outside of the Paris Agreement. Some experts are calling for the creation of a climate club – an idea championed by Yale University economist William Nordhaus – that would punish countries that fail to meet or fail to meet their commitments. Others propose new treaties [PDF] that apply to specific emissions or sectors to complement the Paris Agreement. In particular, it was a question of the balance between low emissions and the high vulnerability of developing countries to climate change compared to the high emissions of developed countries. Another criticism of the Kyoto Protocol and other international conventions is the right of indigenous peoples to participate. Quoted here in the Declaration of the First International Indigenous Forum on Climate Change, it says: “Despite the recognition of our role in preventing global warming, our right to participate in national and international discussions that directly affect peoples and territories is once again denied when it comes to signing international conventions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Change. Climate.  In addition, the Declaration of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of actions carried out later indicates that it contains a transparency framework that will not be intrusive or punitive, but that must serve to build trust between the different actors. It also stipulates that from 2023, the United Nations will produce every five years a report (global stocktaking) on the implementation of the agreement and the progress made – impact of climate contributions, mobilization of financial and technological resources, global temperature forecasts, etc. Between 2001, the first year in which Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects were registered, and 2012, the end of the first Kyoto commitment period, the CDM is expected to produce approximately 1.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) in emission reductions.  Most of these reductions are due to the commercialization of renewable energy, energy efficiency and fuel switching (World Bank, 2010, p. 262).
By 2012, the greatest potential for CER production is estimated in China (52% of total CERs) and India (16%). CERs produced in Latin America and the Caribbean account for 15 per cent of the potential total, with Brazil being the largest producer in the region (7 per cent). As Milton Friedman said, economic and political freedom can be achieved by capitalism; Nevertheless, it is never guaranteed that we will have the equality of wealth of those who are at the top of the “food chain” of this capitalist world. All these changes come to make citizen leaders choose to improve their lifestyles. In the case of the Kyoto Protocol, regulations must be adopted to reduce the production of environmental pollutants. In addition, attempts are being made to jeopardize the freedoms of private and public citizens. .