In Luxembourg, the overall gender pay gap is 32.5%.  The gender pay gap between full-time employees in gross monthly wages has narrowed in recent years. According to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), the gender pay gap narrowed by more than 10% between 2002 and 2015.  The difference also depends on the age group. Women between the ages of 25 and 34 receive a higher salary than men during this period. One of the reasons for this is that they have a higher level of education at this age. From the age of 35, men earn higher wages than women.  The gender pay gap can be a problem from a public policy perspective, as it reduces economic output and means that women are more likely to be dependent on social benefits, especially in old age.    Figure E examines women with low, medium and high wages and compares their wages to those of men of the same racial and ethnic group. Here, white and Asian women with higher wages are paid the lowest compared to their male peers, that is, the gender pay gap is largest among whites and high-income Asians.
Although recent studies have shown that the gender pay gap in New Zealand has narrowed over the past two decades, this gap still affects many women today. According to StatsNZ, the wage gap was measured at 9.4% in September 2017. In 1998, it was measured at about 16.3 per cent. Several factors influence the wage gap in New Zealand. However, the researchers claim that 80% of these factors cannot be elucidated, which often leads to difficulties in understanding the gap.  In addition to their lower social security and retirement incomes, older women also have limited opportunities to earn money in the labor market. Not only is the gender pay gap highest among workers aged 55 to 64, but recent studies also suggest that women in the labour market face “robust” age discrimination and that age discrimination against women is worse than that of men (Neumark, Burn and Button, 2015; Farber, Silverman and von Wachter, 2015). Since a longer job later in life yields less than for a man (DOL 2015), women have less room to catch up on retirement provision. It also means that while older women have the choice of staying at home to care for their families or staying in the workplace, the latter option is relatively less beneficial. In a recent survey, one-fifth of all women aged 45 to 74 reported taking time off work in the past five years to act as caregivers (DOL 2015). The family responsibilities of older women extend not only to their children, but also to their parents.
About 9.7 million Americans over the age of 50 care for their parents, and women are the majority of caregivers. Adjusted wage gaps control for characteristics such as race and ethnicity, education, potential work experience, and geographic distribution. These estimates are made using average wages rather than the median because they require standard regression techniques. Using data from the Current Population Survey of the CPA`s outgoing rotation group, but taking these adjustments into account, we find that the wage gap is widening, with women earning an average of 21.7% less than men.6 The unadjusted penalty for the average woman is 17.9%.7 The measured penalty actually increases when these influences are taken into account. because women workers have, on average, a higher level of education than men.8 These calculations of the pay gap reflect the ratio of women`s earnings to men in all sectors; They do not reflect a direct comparison between women and men who do the same job. That is timely. Calculating in this way allows experts to capture the variety of factors behind the gender pay gap, including but not limited to: domestic workers of both sexes are paid more per hour than foreign-born (non-naturalized) workers (Figure G). However, foreign-born women who are not naturalized – like their domestically born counterparts – experience a pay gap that further reduces their income. The typical foreign-born woman who is not naturalized receives 80 cents per dollar of what a foreign-born man receives ($11.26 in proportion to $14.02).
Among undocumented Mexican immigrants, the gender pay gap is larger: for every dollar a man receives, a woman receives 71 cents (Garcia and Oakford, 2013). An even more important consideration is the cumulative impact of the gender pay gap on all women working full-time in the United States. In total, more than 55 million full-time women earned about $545.7 billion less than their male counterparts in 2019.20 If the gender pay gap had been fully closed, it would have meant an additional $545.7 billion in the pockets of working women and their families – about $9,613.13 per woman – to cover student loan payments, mortgage payments, child care costs, prescription costs, groceries, emergency expenses, and more.21 Figure M shows more simply how our occupations in the U.S. are still separated by gender. More than 40% of employees work in occupations where more than three-quarters of employees have a gender. The current size of the gender pay gap is linked to different factors such as different working hours and different labour market participation.  More women (30.4%) than men (4.6%) work part-time, reducing women`s total working time.  Labour force participation is 60.3% for women and 76% for men, as most women will take maternity leave.  Men are more likely to participate in higher-paying jobs, such as leadership positions (93.7%), which also influences the magnitude of the gender pay gap.  However, the gender-adjusted pay gap limits the analysis to the only potential role of gender discrimination in one dimension: differentiated pay for work of equal value […].